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2.8Summary

  • Humans are made up of about 60 trillion diverse cells.
  • The discovery of the cell dates back to Robert Hooke's observations in 1665.
  • Cells are fundamental, functional units of life.
  • In humans, which are multicellular organisms, cells with different functions assemble into tissues, these tissues organize into larger units called organs, these organs and their functions integrate into organ systems, and these systems integrate to form individual organisms.
  • Cells are mostly made of water, and the stable nature of water molecules is very important for the formation and maintenance of stable life in the temperature environment of the earth's surface.
  • Macromolecules such as proteins, lipids, sugars, and nucleic acids are responsible for intracellular structures and functions in living organisms.
  • Organelles are subcellular structures with specific functions that enable cells to efficiently and cooperatively perform various cellular functions.
  • Cells multiply by cell division. In cell division, genetic information in the form of DNA doubles, the chromosomes containing the doubled DNA separate into two equal sets, and each set of chromosomes is conveyed to one of the two newly formed cells.
  • Multicellular organisms have mechanisms that cooperate with cell proliferation to form diverse cells.
  • Cell death is important for the society of cells. Homeostasis of individual organisms is preserved by the balance between the lives and deaths of cells.

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