4The Importance of Both Nature and Nurture: What Do Genes Control?
Now that the mapping of the human genome has revealed the entire human gene sequence, there is a growing interest in the so-called "nature versus nurture" debate about whether certain traits are inherited by children from their parents. Identical twins, who are thought to have the same genes, have similar faces but different personalities and different susceptibilities to diseases. In the mid 20th century, François Jacob and Jacques Monod demonstrated that genes have a region that codes protein structures and a region that senses changes in the environment and controls the expression of these protein-coding genes accordingly. Genes determine responses to the environment and sensitivity to multifactorial diseases such as cancer and lifestyle diseases. It can be said that organisms have arisen and evolved by interaction between nature (genes) and nurture (environment).