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11.3Summary

  • When genetic recombinant technology was developed, scientists themselves considered self-imposed regulations.
  • Genetic recombinant technology is used to produce useful materials, improve plant breed varieties, create disease model animals, etc.
  • There are various kinds of gene diagnosis to examine human genes, whose ethical and social impacts must be thoroughly discussed.
  • For gene therapy, only genetic recombination of somatic cells is permitted, whereas genetic recombination of reproductive cells, which can be inherited by the descendants, is prohibited worldwide.
  • The human genome project helps decode the entire genetic information of human beings, and the implementation of the project underscores the importance of ethical, legal, and social issues.
  • In Japan, a law regulates human cloning technologies and forbids human cloning, while administrative guidelines define the regulations on human ES cells and permit them to be produced under certain conditions.
  • There are opposing viewpoints over research on the production of cloned human embryos; some believe that it is conducive to regenerative medicine, while others believe that research on humans is premature.
  • When considering the application of various biotechnologies, it is indispensable to take the balance between their risks and benefits into account.

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